In the era of rapid industralisation and pyramiding population, there arose a much critical problem of energy crisis. With the concern of climate change and global warming, a source of green energy is the need of the hour. All these led to the development of the nuclear technology- the energy of the future.
The application of nuclear energy is much looked forward by the developed countries and now the developing countries too. In the developed countries they have moved much forward that more than half of the energy requirement is met by nuclear technology. In countries like India, with such huge population and area more than 50% of the energy is met by the conventional thermal power plants. Rather as a finite source of energy it is also a concern of environmental degradation. Thus we too are moving to the modern idea of nuclear technology. India is blessed with a good source of radioactive elements like uranium. What we lack is the sufficient technology. Thechnology is needed for the design of reactor, coolent mechanism, making of heavy water for the reactor, making of moderator to moderate the rate of reaction etc. It is a fact that India is now an exporter of heavy water which shows its advancement in the field. But we have to look before we leap.
As it is rightly said that there are two sides for everything, nuclear technology has its own merits and demerits. Looking on the better side as said above it can be the future and cleaner energy source. On the other side there are major unanswered questions. The waste produced even after complete utilization of nuclear material, usually polonium, is still another nuclear material which cannot be used furthur. It takes long years for it to reach a stage so that it will emit radiations within permissible limit. They need thick piece concrete shields to protect from the radiation. The disposal of such waste in sea is a matter of cost and safety.
Yet another hurdle we face is regarding the safety of the reactor. As we all know nuclear reactor works under controlled nuclear fission reaction, the control mechanism is a major concern since when uncontrolled it is more or less the process in an atom bomb.
We have faced the disaster of Chernobyl and Fukushima. Even such technologically developed countries like Russia and Japan having such scenes of nuclear disasters, the countries like India have to take this matter seriously. There is much darker side to it. The enriched nuclear fuel can be used to make highly disastrous weapons like the atom bomb. Think of a situation if it reaches the hands of terrorists. Not even going to such a hightech situation, what if they even cause an explosion in a nuclear power plant, which will be an everlasting disaster.
Thus the development of nuclear technology has to be taken with all its precaution and safety. Considering the merits and keeping in mind the demerits we have to seek expert advice while going for nuclear technology. Thus with an efficient development of nuclear technology, can take our country to a greener and safer tomorrow.