Monday, May 21, 2012

Hi-tech copying in UP exams

Arrest of an impersonator using high-tech electronic equipment for cheating in engineering entrance test of the Aligarh Muslim University is an example of how over the years, Uttar Pradesh has emerged as an hub of rackets supplying impersonators and providing 'innovate copying' service for competitive examinations.

Since 2003 over 40 persons including students, teachers and coaching institutes owners have been arrested on charges of 'seat-fixing'. 

On Sunday, an impersonator, Merajuddin (19), was nabbed at Aligarh Muslim University. He had a high definition micro camera in the wrist watch for scanning the question paper and sending images as MMS through mobile phone strapped on his thighs to one Rashid at a coaching centre at Kapoorthala locality in Lucknow. After solving the multiple choice questions, Rashid was dictating the answer on mobile phone received by the accused on blue tooth receiver. Later, he revealed that he had qualified AMU engineering test in 2009-10. However, in 2010-11, he cleared the All India Engineering Entrance Examination and at present was pursuing BTech from National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu. He also admitted to have been paid Rs one lakh for impersonation.

A couple of years back two students in medical university here were caught using exclusively tailored outfits with concealed wires running through the shirt to the trousers, connecting ear/microphones stitched within the folds of the cuff, to the mobile phone strapped to the thighs. There were two outlets in the cuff -- one for microphone and other for earphone. The concealed wires ran through the inner lining on the shirt to the lower end, from where a pin came out which was attached to a socket stitched within the folds of the waist-line of the trousers. The concealed wire then ran through the trousers with an opening near the thighs where the mobile phone was strapped. The two boys were taking dictation through mobile phone from their 'friends' outside the campus.

In a bid to check impersonations, authorities in the state have introduced the provision of taking thumb impression of students in the application form which is later matched at the examination centre during the test and later when students come for counselling for allotment of seat and finally when they take admission in a college. This is to ensure that the applicant which has applied is the same who took exams, appeared in the counselling and took admission. However, `munna bhais' in UP have found have way to beat the check. A few years back, in UP Post Graduate Medical Entrance Test, two students were caught with microfilms on their thumbs. The same microfilm was used by their impersonators for to give thumb impressions while appearing for the entrance examination.

The authorities also introduced a to hold internal examinations of medical and engineering colleges on the day of common entrance test to stop students from being engaged as impersonators. However, racketeers brought `munna bhais' from other states to UP. In May 2008, two rackets were busted in Lucknow and Aligarh respectively. Several students were arrested for impersonation. They were brought from had come to impersonate for candidates appearing in the UP Pre Medical Test from Rajasthan. Students from UP are also sent to other states for impersonation. Three impersonators from UP were caught in in Delhi in 2006, in west Bengal in 2007 and in Punjab in 2009. Sources also said that impersonators from UP are also in demand in states like Karnataka and Maharashtra.

Police investigations have also revealed that seat fixing rackets recruits candidates from coaching institutes and colleges by offering big money. Those who deny are coerced and threatened. Preference is given to those whose faces resemble with the `client'. Photographs on admit cards are also morphed. Recruits are then sent to impersonate in medical entrance tests. The money charged is between Rs 5-15 lakh depending on the requirement and success rate. While ring leader keeps 50%, remaining amount is distributed among others. Impersonator gets around 10% of the share. But in the absence of a strict law, racketeers get bail and resume their activities. Conviction rate is also low, hence all the efforts have not been able to put an effective check on the menace.

TV channel for dogs...!!

 Bleu, a French bulldog watches DogTV with owner
 Maria Catania in San Diego.
Dogs have starred in TV shows and movies for decades, but while those shows might feature dogs or be about dogs, they weren’t created for dogs.

But now man’s best friends have their very own cable television channel. Call DogTV a new breed of television. It’s eight hours of programming a day meant to keep your dog relaxed and entertained while doggie “parents” are at work or school.
To get the right footage, cameramen got on their knees to shoot at a dog’s eye level. “I shot from the point of view of the dog,” said Gilad Neumann of DogTV.

The programs also have music specially written for dogs.

Right now, DogTV is only available in San Diego, California. But it is so popular that it might be offered nationwide in the next few months.

Bleu, a year-old French bulldog, has been watching for a month and snorts and grunts his approval, owner Mary Catania of San Diego said.

“I always feel guilty leaving him alone all day when I’m at work,” Catania said. “He’s like my kid. I don’t have any children, so I really treat him like my child. Anything that makes him happy makes me happy.”

For years, pet owners have been leaving a television or radio on when they go out so their pets have company, said Nick Dodman, director of the Animal Behavior Clinic at Tufts University in Massachusetts.

But Dodman said that according to research on the dog brain, with analog television, dogs could see only a flickering screen. New technologies such as digital TV, high-definition cameras, and enhanced production have changed the way dogs perceive the images, while big screens allow them to see from anywhere in a room, Neumann said.

Do dogs understand what they’re watching? Dodman said research is ongoing, but it appears that dogs not only recognize other dogs on TV, they may even respond differently to their own breed. Dogs can see blue and yellow but not red and green, so colors are altered for DogTV, too.

What you won’t find on DogTV are the sounds that blare on regular TV: no gunshots, no explosions, no heavy metal music, Neumann said.

So what will you (or your dog) find on DogTV?

Relaxation segments feature sleeping dogs and nature scenes accompanied by dog lullabies. Stimulation includes dogs running, playing and surfing, animation and a lot of panting. That’s designed to get a dog moving, even if it is home alone.

There has been a lot of feedback from viewers saying their cats like the show as well as their dogs, Neumann said. CatTV may be added later, but DogTV is strictly for the dogs, he said.

The Escondido Humane Society in California plays DogTV videos.

“We handle 5,000 animals a year. We get high-energy, big dogs that need to calm down. . . . We saw almost immediate results,” said development director Jean Loo-Russo.

12-year-old Bihar boy cracks IIT-JEE

A 12-and-a-half-year-old boy from Patna, Bihar has cracked the highly competitive Indian Institute of Technology-Joint Entrance Examination (IIT-JEE). Satyam Kumar of Bakhorapur village in Bhojpur district qualified from the Mumbai zone with an all-India rank of 8,137. 

"I am happy to crack IIT-JEE but I will not join IIT this year because of my poor rank. I will attempt next year for a good rank," Kumar told IANS over telephone Saturday.

Kumar said he was keen to develop a software company on the lines of Facebook.

Kumar's father, Sidhnath Singh, a farmer, is proud of him. "It is a matter of pride that my son is the youngest to qualify for IIT-JEE," he said.

Kumar is still awaiting his class 12 results. According to the father, Kumar passed the Class 10 board exam from Modern School in Kota, Rajasthan.

He said his son was intelligent since early childhood. "He used to impress everyone with his talent even when he was barely five years old." This is why, the father said, he sent the boy to Kota for higher education.

"The entire village celebrated his success bursting firecrackers and consuming sweets," Singh said.

Saturday, May 19, 2012

Mark Zuckerberg Marries Priscilla Chan

Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg married Priscilla Chan on May 19th 2012, two days after the social networking site had the biggest tech IPO in history and five days after the bride graduated from medical school.

The wedding was announced, of course, on his Facebook page, along with a photo of the happy couple, and in less than an hour nearly 200,000 people had “liked” the news.

Zuckerberg, 28, and Chan, 27, who met nine years ago at Harvard, married in a small ceremony in the backyard of his home in Palo Alto, Calif. Chan graduated from medical school at the University of California, San Francisco, on Monday, the same day Zuckerberg turned 28.

A guest authorized to speak by the couple said there were fewer than 100 people at the ceremony, and they all thought they were there to celebrate Chan’s graduation.

Zuckerberg designed the simple ruby wedding ring himself, and Chan had not seen it before the ceremony, the guest said.

The couple had been planning the ceremony for four or five months, the guest said.

The wedding feast came from the couple’s favorite Palo Alto restaurants, Palo Alto Sol and Fuki Sushi, and for desert they had Burdick Chocolate “mice,” which Chan and Zuckerberg had on their first date.


Chan also updated her Facebook page. "Married Mark Zuckerberg," she wrote.

Zuckerberg's status update had almost 140,000 likes as of 6:50pm local time, (11.50am AEST).

"That's awesome! Congratulations!! Beautiful couple!" one well-wisher wrote.

"Congrats Mark, You have been having a good week!!!!" another said, referring to Facebook going public Friday.

Zuckerberg took his company public in one of the most anticipated stock offerings in Wall Street history Friday. And Chan graduated from medical school at the University of California, San Francisco, on Monday, the same day Zuckerberg turned 28.

Friday, May 18, 2012

why keyboard is arranged as QWERTY ?

This layout was devised and created in the early 1870s by Christopher Latham Sholes, a newspaper editor and printer who lived in Milwaukee. With the assistance of his friends Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soule he built an early writing machine for which a patent application was filed in October 1867.

The first model constructed by Sholes used a piano-like keyboard with two rows of characters arranged alphabetically as follows:

- 3 5 7 9 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
2 4 6 8 . A B C D E F G H I J K L M

His "Type Writer" had two features which made jams a serious issue. Firstly, characters were mounted on metal arms or typebars, which would clash and jam if neighboring arms were depressed at the same time or in rapid succession. Secondly, its printing point was located beneath the paper carriage, invisible to the operator, a so-called "up-stroke" design. Consequently, jams were especially serious, because the typist could only discover the mishap by raising the carriage to inspect what he had typed. The solution was to place commonly used letter-pairs (like "th" or "st") so that their typebars were not neighboring, avoiding jams. A popular myth is that QWERTY was designed to "slow down" typists though this is incorrect – it was designed to prevent jams while typing at speed, allowing typists to type faster.

Sholes struggled for the next five years to perfect his invention, making many trial-and-error rearrangements of the original machine's alphabetical key arrangement. His study of letter-pair frequency by educator Amos Densmore, brother of the financial backer James Densmore, is believed to have influenced the arrangement of letters, but called in question.

In November 1868 he changed the arrangement of the latter half of the alphabet, O to Z, right-to-left. In April 1870 he arrived at a four-row, upper case keyboard approaching the modern QWERTY standard, moving six vowels, A, E, I, O, U, and Y, to the upper row as follows:

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -
A E I . ? Y U O ,

In 1873 Sholes's backer, James Densmore, succeeded in selling manufacturing rights for the Sholes & Glidden Type-Writer to E. Remington and Sons, and within a few months the keyboard layout was finalized by Remington's mechanics. The keyboard ultimately presented to Remington was arranged as follows:

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - ,
Q W E . T Y I U O P
A X & C V B N ? ; R

After it purchased the device, Remington made several adjustments which created a keyboard with what is essentially the modern QWERTY layout. Their adjustments included placing the "R" key in the place previously allotted to the period key (this has been claimed to be done with the purpose of enabling salesmen to impress customers by pecking out the brand name "TYPE WRITER" from one keyboard row but this claim is unsubstantiated[9]). Vestiges of the original alphabetical layout remained in the "home row" sequence DFGHJKL.

The QWERTY layout became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters, via a shift key.

Much less commented-on than the order of the keys is that the keys are not on a grid, but rather that each column slants diagonally; this is because of the mechanical linkages – each key being attached to a lever, and hence the offset prevents the levers from running into each other – and has been retained in most electronic keyboards. Some keyboards, such as the Kinesis, retain the QWERTY layout but arrange the keys in vertical columns, to reduce unnecessary lateral finger motion.

Thursday, May 17, 2012

Audi e-bike Wörthersee

One of the highlights on the Audi stand is the bicycle technology concept known as the Audi e-bike Wörthersee – a sport bike that does not fit into any of the usual categories. It is neither a pedelec nor a conventional bike, but is best described as a high-end pedelec made by Audi for sport, fun and tricks. The Audi e-bike Wörthersee combines the Audi brand’s principal competences – design, ultra, connect and e-tron – and explores the limits of what is technically feasible in terms of design, lightweight construction, networking and electric mobility.

This show bike is futuristic at the very first glance – a bike for tomorrow and beyond. All its components, even the pedals, have been shaped by Audi’s designers, for instance the 26-inch wheels made from CFRP that weigh only 600 grams (1.32 lb) each and have innovative large-area blade-pattern spokes.

The Audi e-bike Wörthersee’s ultra-light carbon-fiber frame weighs only 1,600 grams (3.53 lb). It makes use of bionic principles derived from nature. Material reinforcements are needed only at the points where loads actually occur. The swinging arm for the rear wheel is also made of CFRP. All in all, the Audi e-bike Wörthersee represents the full extent of the brand’s expertise in ultra-lightweight design.

The rear wheel is driven by a chain. The electric motor is a permanent magnet synchronous machine; it is located at the lowest point on the frame and drives the bottom bracket shaft directly. Maximum torque at the rear wheel is in the region of 250 Nm (184.39 lb-ft). Peak output from the electric motor is 2.3 kW – a new top value on the e-bike scene. The complete bicycle weighs only 21 kg (46.30 lb), equivalent to a power-weight ratio of 9 kg (19.84 lb) per kilowatt, or 7 kg (15.43 lb) per horsepower – another record-breaking value.

The lithium-ion battery is housed in the frame; it weighs about 5 kg (11.02 lb) and operates at a voltage of 48 V. Its capacity is 530 Wh and it can be fully recharged from a 230 V supply in two and a half hours. As an alternative it can be easily detached from the bike and replaced by a recharged battery.

The rider of the Audi e-bike Wörthersee can choose between five programs; these either support use of the pedals or permit electric-only travel.

In the ‘Pure’ mode the rider only propels the bike by means of the pedals. In the ‘Pedelec’ mode the rider is assisted by the electric motor; a top speed of up to 80 km/h (50 mph) can be reached and the action radius is between 50 and 70 kilometers (31 and 44 miles). In the ‘eGrip’ program the Audi e-bike Wörthersee can be ridden with the electric motor providing all the necessary power; in this case at speeds up to 50 km/h (31 mph). The rider controls the power output from the electric motor at a twistgrip and can configure it at the on-board computer.

In ‘Wheelie’ mode the power flow is electronically controlled in order to assist the rider when the front wheel is in the air. Alternative operating modes are available, and can be selected by smartphone or directly at the e-bike: either ‘Power Wheelie’ with an adjustable wheelie angle for less skilled riders, or ‘Balanced Wheelie’ for those with more experience. In the latter mode the rider’s balance is maintained electronically: as his or her weight is displaced forward or back, this is counteracted by either braking or accelerating the electric motor.

In this way the rider can influence the speed when riding on the rear wheel only by shifting his or her weight. Leaning forward speeds up the bike, leaning back slows it down. If the rider wants to use the pedals and maintain a constant power input, the training mode can be chosen. The electric motor then makes good the extra power needed when riding into the wind or up a hill, so that the rider’s performance can be kept constant for training purposes.

The Audi e-bike Wörthersee has a varied specification. The nine-speed hydraulically actuated gear shift has a very rapid sequential action, similar to the R tronic transmission in an Audi R8. The two disk brakes are also applied hydraulically. Seat height can be continuously adjusted at a handlebar control, even while the bike is being ridden. The front fork uses the more complex ‘upside-down’ principle; it is air-sprung, with 130 mm (5.12 in) of travel. LEDs are used for powerful lighting: the front light is integrated into the handlebar, the rear light into the seat.

The on-board computer is located in the frame top tube and operated using a touchscreen. Among the functions it provides are riding mode selection, recording trick sequences and adjustment of various e-bike functions such as electric pedaling assistance and lighting. The display shows road speed, distance covered, state of battery charge, energy consumption and slope angle at any given moment.

The rider’s smartphone communicates by WLAN with the bike’s computer. The antenna is integrated into the front brake line. To ride the bike, the immobilizer is deactivated at the smartphone; the bike is then ready for use. In addition, by way of the interface between the bike’s computer and the smartphone, video images recorded while riding or even complete trick sequences can be transmitted to the Internet or the trainer. Every trick performed successfully qualifies for success points. As the number of points increases, the rider is rewarded and at the same time the challenge level rises. The total Internet ranking can be compared with friends or other riders. The rider can locate them by way of Facebook entries that can be shown on the Audi e-bike Wörthersee’s display.

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

Use the Facebook Privacy Controls You Have Before u Get Dumped

One of the biggest issues people have with social networks is how or where their personal information is being shared. Updates to the Facebook privacy policy have some privacy advocates up in arms--perhaps for good reason. But, the irony is that many people who claim to be concerned about personal privacy don’t even use the controls at their disposal.

At the heart of the current debate are changes that Facebook has made in the interest of full disclosure ahead of its upcoming IPO. Some of the changes seem to suggest that Facebook could venture into a broader advertising network that extends beyond just Facebook. In that case, some information posted within Facebook could be shared outside of the social network on ads on third-party sites.

If you’ve ever used a tool like the Outlook Social Connector, though, you know that many people are inadvertently exposing a wide variety of personal information to the general public. The Outlook Social Connector links to Facebook and other social networks to integrate information about your contacts and display it in Outlook. Often, you are able to view status updates and personal information from people who aren’t even in your social network because their data is open to the public.

Facebook has privacy and security controls available to enable users to choose who can see their data. The trick is, users need to know they exist and actually use them.

If you click on the drop-down arrow at the upper-right corner of the Facebook page--next to your profile picture and name--you can open up the “Privacy Settings.” You can choose whether your posts are viewable by the Public, or just by your Friends, or restrict visibility to a custom list.

There are settings to control who can view your personal information, who can send you Friend requests, and who can send you Facebook Messages. There are settings to control which Friends can post on your Timeline (or if they can), who can view posts from others on your Timeline, who can Tag you in posts, and who can view posts that you’ve been tagged in. There is even a setting to outright block access to your Facebook profile by specified users. The level of control within the Facebook Privacy Settings is fairly detailed.

Granted, none of these privacy settings will prevent the potential sharing of information on third-party sites per se. The reason Facebook is putting it in the privacy policy is to establish up front that it is possible the information you share on Facebook could be used in that way. The point is that before users bother to get upset about how or where Facebook might use their information, they should at least invest 15 minutes to use the security and privacy controls available to lock down access to their personal information as much as they can.

Top Five Online Scams

You might think Web surfers have started to wise up to Internet rip-offs. But you'd be wrong. Here's how scammers are trying to dupe you today.

After years of trying to recover from the dot-com hangover, the Internet is booming again. Online retail sales increased by 26 percent in 2004, according to comScore Networks. In September 2004, the number of domain name registrations hit 64.5 million--an all-time high. You know what else is on the rise? Internet crime.

Complaints about online fraud nearly doubled from 2003 to 2004, according to a December 2004 report by the FBI and the National White Collar Crime Center. Research firm Gartner estimates that nearly 10 million Americans were hit by online fraudsters last year--largely due to a wave of phishing e-mails seeking to steal users' identities.

In fact, phishing attacks seem to be the new, hot scam. Scammers send you an e-mail that tries to lure you to a legitimate-looking Web site where you'll be asked to enter personal information. The thing is, it's all fake; and if you fall for it, someone is ready to take your Social Security Number and start opening credit card accounts.

The FBI recently began warning people of scammers posing as tsunami-relief organizations. And late last month, the FBI warned that someone out there was even posing as the FBI itself--sending a fraudulent e-mail with the subject line "FBI Investigation" and trying to lure people into buying products from a separate, fictional scam artist whom the Feds were supposedly on to.

Confusing? Sure. But just ask yourself this: When was the last time the FBI sent a polite e-mail when they wanted someone's cooperation in an investigation?

Thousands of con artists, grifters, fraudsters, and other denizens of the dark are trolling for victims online. Can you recognize online fraud when you see it? Here's a quick guide to the Top 5 scams and schemes you're most likely to find on the 'Net.

1. Auction Fraud

The setup: Online auction fraud accounts for three-quarters of all complaints registered with the FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center (formerly the Internet Fraud Complaint Center). There are many types of eBay chicanery, but the most common one is where you send in your money and get nothing but grief in return.

What actually happens: You never get the product promised, or the promises don't match the product. The descriptions may be vague, incomplete, or completely fake. One scammer accepted bids for Louis Vuitton bags that she didn't own, and then scoured the Internet looking for cheap knockoffs that cost less than the winning bid. She managed to collect at least $18,000 from bidders before she got nailed. A buyer thought he'd purchased a portable DVD player for $100, but what he got instead was a Web address for a site where he could buy a player for a $200 discount. The stories are virtually endless.

The risk: You get ripped off, losing time and money. If you spill the beans about the scam, the seller may retaliate by posting negative eBay reports about you using phony names.

The question you've gotta ask yourself: Who in their right mind would sell a $200 bag for $20?

2. Phishing Scams

The setup: You receive an e-mail that looks like it came from your bank, warning you about identity theft and asking that you log in and verify your account information. The message says that if you don't take action immediately, your account will be terminated.

What actually happens: Even though the e-mail looks like the real deal, complete with authentic logos and working Web links, it's a clever fake. The Web site where you're told to enter your account information is also bogus. In some instances, really smart phishers direct you to the genuine Web site, then pop up a window over the site that captures your personal information.

The risk: Your account information will be sold to criminals, who'll use it to ruin your credit and drain your account. According to Gartner, phishing scammers took consumers (and their banks, who had to cover the charges) for $1.2 billion in 2003.

The question you've gotta ask yourself: If this matter is so urgent, why isn't my bank calling me instead of sending e-mail?

3. Nigerian 419 Letter

The setup: You receive an e-mail, usually written in screaming capital letters, that starts out like this:


The letter says the scammers are seeking an accomplice who will transfer the funds into their account for a cut of the total--usually around 30 percent. You'll be asked to travel overseas to meet with the scammers and complete the necessary paperwork. But before the transaction can be finalized, you must pay thousands of dollars in "taxes," "attorney costs," "bribes," or other advance fees.

What actually happens: There's no minister and no money--except for the money you put up in advance. Victims who travel overseas may find themselves physically threatened and not allowed to leave until they cough up the cash. (FYI, "419" is named for the section of Nigeria's penal code that the scam violates.)

The risk: Serious financial loss--or worse. Victims of Nigerian letter fraud lose $3000 on average, according to the FBI. Several victims have been killed or gone missing while chasing a 419 scheme.

The question you've gotta ask yourself: Of all the people in the world, why would a corrupt African bureaucrat pick me to be his accomplice?

4. Postal Forwarding/Reshipping Scam

The setup: You answer an online ad looking for a "correspondence manager." An offshore corporation that lacks a U.S. address or bank account needs someone to take goods sent to their address and reship them overseas. You may also be asked to accept wire transfers into your bank account, then transfer the money to your new boss's account. In each case, you collect a percentage of the goods or amount transferred.

What actually happens: Products are purchased online using stolen credit cards--often with identities that have been purloined by phishers--and shipped to your address. You then reship them to the thieves, who will fence them overseas. Or you're transferring stolen funds from one account to another to obscure the money trail.

The risk: Sure, you can make big bucks for a while. But after a few months, you're going to look inside your bank account and find it cleaned out. Worse, when the feds come looking for the scammers, you're the one they're going to nail.

The question you've gotta ask yourself: Why can't these people receive their own darn mail?

5. "Congratulations, You've Won an Xbox (IPod, plasma TV, etc.)"

The setup: You get an e-mail telling you that you've won something cool--usually the hot gadget du jour, such as an Xbox or an IPod. All you need to do is visit a Web site and provide your debit card number and PIN to cover "shipping and handling" costs.

What actually happens: The item never arrives. A few months later, mystery charges start showing up on your bank account. The only thing that gets shipped and handled is your identity. (A more benign variation on this scam drives you to a site where you're asked to cough up your contact info and agree to receive spam from advertisers until unwanted e-mail is coming out of your ears.)

The risk: Identity theft, as well as lost money if you don't dispute the charges.

The question you've gotta ask yourself: When did I enter a contest to win an Xbox (iPod, plasma TV, etc.)?

Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Paper cannot be fold more than 7 times, is a myth..!!

The myth goes like this...

If you have a normal sheet of notebook paper and you try to fold it in half multiple times, you probably cannot get it to fold more than 6 times. Maybe 7 if you are really strong. That maximum limit is caused by two things:

1) The number of layers of paper doubles with each fold. So you start with a single layer, then you have two layers, then four, then eight, then 16, then 32, then 64 layers after six folds. Maybe if you are very strong, and you use a pair of pliers, you can get to seven folds and 128 layers, but it probably won’t be pretty.

2) At that point the sheet of paper is so small, and the number of layers so large relative to the small size, and the distortion caused by the folds so great, that there is no way to fold it again. You can’t apply enough leverage, and the fibers of the paper do not have enough flexibility for another fold.

It is actually possible to fold it more than 7 times...!! see the video...

Monday, May 14, 2012

69 Carcinogens in Cigarette smoke



Benz(a)anthracene 20-70 ng

Benzo(b)fluoranthene 4-22 ng

Benzo(j)fluoranthene 6-21 ng

Benzo(k)fluoranthene 6-12 ng  

Benzo(a)pyrene 20-40 ng  

Dibenz(a,h)anthracene 4 ng  

Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene 1.7-3.2 ng  


Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 4-20 ng  

5-Methylchrysene 0.6 ng  

Heterocyclic Compounds

Quinolineb 1-2 ng

Dibenz(a,h)acridine 0.1 ng  

Dibenz(a,j)acridine 3-10 ng  

Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole 0.7 ng  


Furan 18-37 ng  

N -Nitrosamines

N -Nitrosodimethylamine 2-180 ng  

N -Nitrosoethylmethylamine 3-13 ng  

N -Nitrosodiethylamine ND-2.8 ng  

N -Nitrosodi-n-propylamine ND-1.0 ng  

N -Nitroso-di-n-butylamine ND-30 ng  

N -Nitrosopyrrolidine 3-110 ng  

N -Nitrosopiperidine ND-9 ng  

N -Nitrosodiethanolamine ND-68 ng  

N -Nitrosonornicotine 120-3,700 ng  

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1- (3-pyridyl)-1-butanone 80-770 ng  

Aromatic Amines

2-Toluidine 30-337 ng  

2,6-Dimethylaniline 4-50 µg  

2-Naphthylamine 1-334 ng   

4-Aminobiphenyl 2-5.6 ng   

N -Heterocyclic Amines

AaC 25-260 ng  

IQ 0.3 ng  

Trp-P-1 0.3-0.5 ng  

Trp-P-2 0.8-1.1 ng  

Glu-P-1 0.37-0.89 ng  

Glu-P-2 0.25-0.88 ng  

PhIP 11-23 ng  Possible


Formaldehyde 70-100 µg   

Acetaldehyde 500-1,400 µg

Volatile Hydrocarbons

1,3-Butadiene 20-75 µg

Isoprene 450-1,000 µg  

Benzene 20-70 µg   

Styrene 10  µg

Misc. Organic Compound

Acetamide 38-56  µg  


Acrylonitrile 3-15 µg  

Vinyl chloride 11-15 ng   

DDT 800-1,200 µg  Probable

DDE 200-370 µg  

Catechol 100-360 µg  

Caffeic acid < 3 µg  


Nitromethane 0.3-0.6 µg  

2-Nitropropane 0.7-1.2 µg  

Nitrobenzene 25 µg  

Ethyl carbamate 20-38 µg  

Ethylene oxide 7 µg   

Propylene oxide 12-100 ng  

Methyleugenol 20 ng

Inorganic Compounds

Hydrazine 24-43 ng   

Arsenic 40-120 µg   

Beryllium 0.5 ng   

Nickel ND-600 ng   

Chromium (only hexavalent) 4-70 ng   

Cadmium 7-350 ng   

Cobalt 0.13-0.2 ng

Lead 34-85 ng

Polonium-210 0.03-1.0 pCi